Wombat migration 
I've been blogging here under the Footnotes on Epicycles banner for almost eleven years. After much dithering, I've decided that it is time to move. I am going to leave all the FoE pages here, so that all the old posts and comments will still be accessible. Going forward, though, I will be blogging at News for Wombats.

The new title better reflects my Twitter handle and might be the occasion for more non-philosophy blogging.

Again, the link: https://www.fecundity.com/nfw/

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Soft serve metaphysics 
I have been thinking about the question of emoji art for quite some time. I've finally completed a draft of a paper, which I've posted over on my website.

The ontology of 💩

Summary: Emoji are picture characters familiar from smart phone text messages. If a work of art is written in emoji, how should we think about the emoji that constitute it? What is the ontology of such a work? I begin in section 1 by discussing the history of emoji. One of the more notable emoji is the pile of poo which figures in the title of this paper. In section 2, I consider the meaning of emoji and argue that there is no natural language translation for an emoji character. In sections 3 and 4, I discuss some specific works of emoji art: Emoji Dick and emoji poems. In section 5, I argue these works are best understood as specified strings of emoji in much the same way as a work of prose is understood as a specified string of words. In section 6, I conclude by arguing that there are possible emoji works with other ontologies.

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The fruits of June 
I had meant to blog more in June, but I did not.

I did, however, collaborate with my colleague Brad Armour-Garb on a paper. We started in the first week of June and have now finished a stable draft, which I posted over on my website.

Attitudes, self-ascriptions, and introspection

Summary: People regularly answer questions about their propositional attitudes. Moreover, they are fairly reliable at this. For example, if someone is asked whether she believes that Mickey Mouse has a tail, she can quickly answer if she does. Only under rare circumstances would we say that she was wrong if she sincerely asserted that she did believe that Mickey Mouse has a tail. But this raises some questions. How do people readily make such self-ascriptions? And what explains their impressive reliability?

We critically address Robert Gordon's (2007) recent attempt at explaining self-ascriptions of propositional attitudes without an appeal to introspection. In particular, after explaining Gordon's proposal for how we make such self-ascriptions and for how we can explain their impressive reliability, we show that his position is ultimately untenable. We then provide a different explanation for how we can self-ascribe such attitudes and go on to show that we can do this without any real reliance on introspection.

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May blows in 
My paper Kind of Borrowed, Kind of Blue has been published in the Spring issue of JAAC.

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Feminist philsci 
Last week I sat in on a meeting of a feminist philosophy course taught by my colleague Kristen Hessler. She was doing a unit on feminist philosophy of science and invited me to say a bit about how it relates to philosophy of science generally.

It occurred to me that feminist philosophy of science was a considerable influence on me. I got started writing about underdetermination when I was in grad school by thinking about Helen Longino's work. That ended up being the topic of my dissertation and many of my early papers.

Here are two other related thoughts: one about the significance of 1980s and 90s feminist philosophy of science, and another about two strands in the literature on values and science.

1. I hypothesize that feminist philosophy of science in the 1990s was crucial for subsequent literature that takes seriously the entanglement of science and values. Philosophers often presumed a value-free conception, especially in the Science Wars waged against relativist sociologists and others. Feminist philosophy of science modelled an alternative -- a way to recognize values in science without wild relativism.

There was not really a "values and science" literature in the 1990s the way that there is now. My guess is that this has been possible in part because of the initial wedge provided by feminist philosophy of science.

2. The literature in the 21st century has gone in two directions.

Literature in feminist philosophy of science has articulated ways in which specific sciences involve thick evaluative concepts, can change our conception of what is good, and so on. As these cases have been elaborated, the entanglement with values doesn't depend on some general argument which applies to all science (like underdetermination) but instead on details about particular cases. So this literature has narrowed insofar as it only applies clearly to specific cases, mostly in human and biological sciences. It is not clear how gender is entangled with (e.g.) astronomy.

There is also an active literature on values in science which is not explicitly feminist. For example, Heather Douglas argues that values always play an indirect role in theory choice. That is, adopting a theory reflects not just the evidence but also an assessment of the costs of possible errors and the benefits of possible accurate judgments. Another example: Justin Biddle and Eric Winsberg on climate science, who argue that current science is path-dependent. It reflects not just the evidence but also which prior enquiries were conducted and in which order. So value-laden choices about what to study and when effect the outcome of enquiries now.

Note that these latter considerations are, in one sense, broader than those raised by feminists. They apply to pretty much all science -- to astronomy as much as to biology and human sciences.

In another sense, they are narrower. Feminist philosophers of science argue against any limitation on what values may influence science. For the indirect role of values, it's only assessments about costs of various errors. For path-dependence, it's only past judgements about what ought to be done.

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